Basic Definitions in Gerontology Keywords: Aging can simply refer to the passage of time and can even have a positive connotation as in "aging wine. Personally, I actually prefer the term "senescence.
Obesity in the USA has cased life expectancy drop - the first time the upwards trend has been reversed in an advanced country. In Africaexpected lifespans is declining, "owing largely to the scourge of AIDS " 38 Poverty reduces life expectancy, meaning, unpredictable cataclysms in world markets events can have negative effects on countries.
War reduces life expectancy. Not just amongst those directly in the area of the fighting, but also due to the long-term economic woes and upheaval associated with war, which spread to entire regions.
Fatal diseases spread quicker the more dense the population, and according to traditional models, more quickly amongst the young and the old.
Longevity can potentially make diseases more effective. A nationally high rate of religiosity is associated with low national life expectancy. Sociological Data on Life Expectancy Versus Religion 39 china christianity islam japan USA Christians are not the only ones who once claimed that longevity amongst believers was a sign that their religion was true - although we have seen that Muslim proponents have not made that claim.
The author of "Zen - The Religion of the Samurai" 40Kaiten Nukariya 40states quite confidently that "history proves that most Zen masters enjoyed a long life in spite of their extremely simple mode of living" 41and also explains the long-lasting influence of Zen in China and Japan and elsewhere.
Although it is hard to examine claims that are made for history so long ago, we can look at the world now and see if people's religions affects their long-term health.
Unfortunately, the results do not come out favourably for the religious. Gallup and UNHDR 42 Only countries that are still very religious have low life expectancy of below 65, and, all countries that have lost religion, or are losing it, have great life expectancy over But it isn't enough of an outlayer to buck the trend.
On average those who are born in countries that are not very religious enjoy 10 years longer life. Of all the countries that have life expectancy of over 80 years at birth, their average religiosity rate is merely Some statistics in some countries USA show that religious people in those countries have better health than their neighbours, however, it seems if the religious increase in numbers too much, national life expectancy will tend to be found to be much lower.
In other words, mass-religiosity is bad news for longevity. As general medical science and advanced technology is tied in with good health as well as lack of poverty, there are a multitude of reasons as to why religion might be negatively correlated with long life.
The only sure thing is that when the author of Proverbs 9: Conclusions japan russia The fantastic population explosion that the Earth is experiencing is uneven. The developed world is gradually experiencing a reduction in growth, leading to an actual decline in population.
The result is that even as the West grows old, much of the world becomes more and more overpopulated. As a result the increase in the amount of retired people, and the decrease in workers paying into pensions schemes, all pensions schemes are already starting to collapse.
Also, most industries rely on young adult immigrants as the local workforces are becoming increasingly scarce. Our economy and future depends on pulling increasingly greater numbers of workers from countries that are not yet entering the post-explosion era.
Developed countries must maintain strong armies to protect themselves from the rumblings of unrest in the overpopulated countries, and to protect such unstable countries from each other, and we must also keep a continual watch over the developing nations in order to aid them past the population-explosion stages in their history.
To think that there is no problem or to ignore it is to invite the demise of civilised Western society under a tide of economic collapses brought on by overpopulation and civil chaos.
At the end of the day, if there is no solution to wars and overpopulation, may the most advanced countries survive! Thankfully, there are signs that things can be encouraged to turn out ok. Although poorer countries are rising in populations at an increasing rate whilst developed ones are beginning to verge on shrinking, people are escaping from poverty at a hopeful rate.
This is more than the population of Japan or Russia - and more people, more quickly than at any other time in history. People in poor countries are now able to exert more control over their own fertility, and hence over the size of their families. Another is the way in which developing countries sometimes leapfrog decades of technological development.
For example in Africa, the adoption of mobile phones means that Africa has not needed to build a telecoms infrastructure, and wireless technologies may mean it doesn't have to build one in the future, either.
But gadgets derived from science will not result in an easy cure for massive overpopulation; it must always go hand in hand with sex education and contraceptives to control fertility rates. Unfortunately for Africa, growing Christian fundamentalism and Islamisation of the continent has meant that religious forces are now threatening the basics of sex education 43 ; both competing groups argue against many of the findings of modern science.
It seems that the developing world is plagued by two of Humanities' worst enemies: If these forces overwhelm the educators, then the cultural war I warned about above between the haves and have-nots of the world, is again on the agenda despite the fact that at the moment fertility controls are reducing poverty.Basic definitions and concepts in the study of aging.
Table 1: Death by underlying or multiple cause, expressed in rates per , people or in percentage of the total deaths, for the US population in two age groups: years and 85 years of age and older.
Source: CDC/NCHS, National Vital Statistics System, Mortality Data. Figure 3 shows the most important causes of death in the elderly.
Populations around the world are rapidly ageing. Ageing presents both challenges and opportunities. It will increase demand for primary health care and long-term care, require a larger and better trained workforce and intensify the need for environments to be made more age-friendly.
This report was prepared by the Population Division as a contribution to the World Assembly on Ageing and its follow-up. The report provides a description of global trends in population.
Senescence (/ s ɪ ˈ n ɛ s ə n s /) or biological aging is the gradual deterioration of functional characteristics. The word senescence can refer either to cellular senescence or to senescence of the whole ph-vs.comsmal senescence involves an increase in death rates and/or a decrease in fecundity with increasing age, at least in the later part of an organism's life cycle.
As of December , people 65 or older account for more than 20% of the total population in only three countries: Germany, Italy and Japan.
This figure is expected to rise to 13 countries by and 34 countries by Decline in Working-Age Population. A rapidly aging population means there are fewer working-age people in . Japan’s population is aging at a globally unprecedented pace.
As of the share of those 65 or over had reached 24%. By the figure is expected to reach 30%, and by the share will probably be almost 40%. This is a level of “super-ageing” that no country has ever experienced.